تاثیر رطوبت خاک و تعداد تردد اسکیدر بر شیاری‌‌شدن مسیرهای چوب‌کشی (مطالعه موردی: جنگل خیرود)

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

اثرات استفاده از اسکیدرهای چرخ لاستیکی در چوب‌کشی بر روی خاک‏های جنگلی می‌تواند به سه گروه اصلی تقسیم‌بندی شود: بهم‌‌خوردگی خاک، کوبیدگی خاک و شیاری شدن خاک. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تاثیر تعداد تردد اسکیدر چرخ لاستیکی تیمبرجک C450 و رطوبت خاک در مسیرهای چوب‌کشی بر روی شیاری‌‌شدن و ایجاد رد چرخ در خاک‏های ریزدانه و کمی‌‌کردن این اثرات است. این مطالعه در قالب طرح فاکتوریل کاملا تصادفی در جنگل آموزشی و پژوهشی خیرود اجرا شد و اثرات رطوبت خاک در سه دسته 25، 35 و 45 درصد و سطوح متفاوت کوبیدگی که به‏وسیله تعداد عبور اسکیدر اعمال شده شامل 1، 5، 10، 15، 20 و 30 بار تردد است. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش تعداد دفعات عبور اسکیدر، شیاری‌‌شدن و تشکیل رد چرخ را افزایش داده است. همچنین شیاری‌‌شدن و تشکیل رد چرخ در خاک در رطوبت 45 درصد بیشتر از رطوبت‌های 25 و 35 درصد است. به طور میانگین، عمق رد چرخ خاک در رطوبت‌های 25، 35 و 45 درصد به ترتیب برابر 43، 101 و 172 میلی‌متر است. بنابراین متوقف کردن عملیات چوب‌کشی در طول دوره‌ای که رطوبت خاک بالا است، می‌تواند صدمه به خاک و ایجاد رد چرخ را کاهش دهد. در نتیجه عملیات چوب‌کشی به طور عمده باید در طول فصل تابستان و شرایط خشکی انجام شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Soil Moisture and Number of Skidder Passes on Rutting in Skid Trails (Case Study: Kheyrud Forest)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Meghdad Jourgholami 1
  • baris majnounian 2
چکیده [English]

Impacts of skidding operations on forest soils can be divided into three major categories: soil profile disturbance, soil compaction and soil puddling and rutting. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of number of machine passes and soil moisture content on skid trail rutting, and to quantify these effects. The study was designed as a complete factorial experiment in the Kheyrud Forest following Timberjack cable skidder operations. The effect of 25, 35 and 45% soil moisture content and different levels of compaction were assessed by varying number of skidding cycles: 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 passes. The results showed that the rut depths increased with increasing number of machine passes, but most of the rutting occurred after the initial few passes. Rut depth at 45% soil moisture was higher than rut depths at 35 and 25% of moisture content. The average rut depths in soil with 25, 35 and 45 moisture were 43, 101 and 172 mm, respectively. Rut depths significantly increased with soil moisture and number of machine passes. Skidding operations should be planned when soil conditions are dry to minimize rutting, but if skidding must be done under wet conditions, the operations should be stopped when machine traffic creates deep ruts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • number of pass
  • rut formation
  • skid trail
  • soil moisture
  • Timberjack 450C
  • Wheeled cable skidder
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