تعیین‌کننده‌های عضویت زنان روستایی در تعاونی‌های حفاظت از جنگل‌های زاگرس در استان لرستان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران

2 کارشناسی ارشد توسعۀ روستایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران

چکیده

جنگل‌های زاگرس از اکوسیستم‌های طبیعی ارزشمند هستند که به دلایل مختلف از جمله آتش‌سوزی، بهره‌برداری بی‌رویه، چرای دام و غیره در معرض خطر و نابودی قرار گرفته‌اند. راهکار حفاظت از این جنگل‌ها را باید در مشارکت اعضای جامعه به‌طور عام و زنان روستایی به‌طور خاص جست‌وجو کرد. یکی از تشکل‌های مرتبط در این زمینه، تعاونی‌های حفاظت از جنگل است که با استقبال چندان مردم محلی روبه‌رو نشده است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی عوامل تعیین‌کنندۀ عضویت زنان روستایی در تعاونی‌های حفاظت از جنگل‌های زاگرس در استان لرستان انجام گرفت. جامعۀ آماری شامل همۀ زنان روستایی بالای 15 سال در استان لرستان بود (231000N=). حجم نمونه با استفاده از فرمول کوکران 235 نفر تعیین شد و نمونه‌گیری به روش طبقه‌بندی با انتساب متناسب (براساس سطح جنگل) انجام گرفت. نتایج تحلیل تشخیصی نشان داد که هفت متغیر وابستگی به جنگل، اعتماد اجتماعی، نگرانی از مسائل محیط زیستی، نگرش حفاظتی، خودکارآمدی، دانش در زمینۀ مسائل جنگل و نگرش حفاظتی زنان بیشترین قدرت را در تفکیک گروه‌های عضو و غیرعضو در تعاونی‌های حفاظت از جنگل دارد. تابع تشخیصی به‌دست‌آمده از این هفت متغیر می‌تواند عضویت داشتن و عضویت نداشتن زنان بررسی‌شده در تعاونی‌های حفاظت از جنگل را با دقت 5/86 از هم تفکیک کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determinants of rural women's membership in Zagros forest conservation cooperatives in Lorestan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Moslem Savari 1
  • Zinab Asadi 2
1 Assist. Prof., Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, I.R. Iran
2 M.Sc. Rural Development, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, I.R. Iran
چکیده [English]

The Zagros forests are one of the most valuable natural ecosystems that are endangered and destroyed every year for various reasons including fires, over-exploitation, grazing, etc. Solution for protecting it lies in the participation of community members in general and rural women in particular. In this regard, one of the related organizations in this field is forest conservation cooperatives, which has not received much attention in this field. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim of finding factors affecting rural women's membership in Zagros Forest Conservation Cooperatives in Lorestan province. The statistical population included all rural women over 15 years in Lorestan province (N= 231000). Sample size was calculated using Cochran sampling formula of 235 persons by proportional classification method (based on forest area). The results of the discriminant analysis showed that the seven variables of forest dependence, social trust, environmental concerns, conservation attitudes, self-efficacy, knowledge of forest issues and conservation attitudes had the most power in separating member and non-member groups in cooperatives. In summary, the discriminant function from these seven variables is able to accurately differentiate the studied women with 86.5% accuracy in membership and non-membership of forest conservation cooperatives.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sustainable forest management
  • Deforestation
  • rural women
  • cooperatives
  • Environmental attitudes
[1]. Kangarani, H. M., Shamekhi, T., Babae, M., Ashtarian, K., and Arab, D. R. (2009). Policy-making between institution, forest and water variables by path analysis method (case study; Vezg watershed/Kohgiloye va Boyerahmad province). Iranian Journal of Forest, 1(4): 345-359.

[2]. FAO and AgriCord. (2016). Forest and Farm Producer Organizations-Operating Systems for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Strength in Numbers. FAO, Forestry Economics and Policy Division, AgriCord., Rome.

[3]. Fatehi, P., Namiranian, M., Darvish, S. A., and Fatahi, M. (2010). The study of suitable forest territorial organization in the northern Zagros. Journal of Forest and Wood Products, 62(4): 417-428.

[4]. Jana, S. K., Lise, W., and Ahmed, M. (2014). Factors affecting participation in joint forest management in the West Bengal state of India. Journal of Forest Economics, 20(4): 317-332.

[5]. Coulibaly-Lingani, P., Savadogo, P., Tigabu, M., and Oden, P. C. (2011). Factors influencing people's participation in the forest management program in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Forest Policy and Economics, 13(4): 292-302.

[6]. Borda-Rodriguez, A., and Vicari, S. (2014). Rural co-operative resilience: the case of Malawi. Journal of Co-operative Organization and Management, 2(1): 43-52.

[7]. Savari, M., Shabanali Fami, H., and Daneshvar Ameri, Z. (2015). Rural women's empowerment in improving household food security in the Divandarreh county. Journal of Research and Rural Planning, 3(8): 107-121.

[8]. Chuang, Y. C., and Chuang, K. Y. (2008). Gender differences in relationships between social capital and individual smoking and drinking behavior in Taiwan. Social Science and Medicine, 67(8): 1321-1330.

[9]. Yaghoubi Farani, A. (2016). Barriers of local people participation in forest conservation plans in gilan e gharb county. Zagros Forests Research, 2(2): 79-89.

[10]. Hidarpour, Z., Shabaali Fami, H., Asadi, A., and Malek Mohammadi, I. (2007). Investigating the role of forestry cooperatives members in restoration of forest resources in the west of Mazandaran province. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 15(1): 1-15.

[11]. Ostad Hashmi, R., Rostaki Shahraji, T., and Eskandari, F. (2013). Impact of forestry cooperatives on conservation and restoration of forests in Guilan province. Journal of Cooperatives and Agriculture, 2(8): 46-63.

[12]. Laužikas, M., and Dailydaitė, S. (2015). Impacts of social capital on transformation from efficiency to innovation-driven business. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 16(1): 37-51.

[13]. Sözbilir, F. (2018). The interaction between social capital, creativity and efficiency in organizations. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 27: 92-100.

[14]. Savari, M., and Abdeshahi, A. (2019). Analysis of the role of social capital to improve the resilience of rural households in drought conditions in the county of Divandarreh. Journal of Rural Research, 10(2): 214-229.

[15]. Karamidehkordi, E., and Ansari, A. (2012). Impact of rangeland and wateshed management on sustainable rural households' livelihoods in the Zanjan township. Agricultural Modern Technologies, Special Issue of Agricultural Extension and Education, 5(2): 136-107.

[16]. Arbuckle, J. G., Morton, L. W., and Hobbs, J. (2013). Farmer beliefs and concerns about climate change and attitudes toward adaptation and mitigation: Evidence from Iowa. Climatic Change, 118(3-4): 551-563.

[17]. Buntaine, M. T., Hamilton, S. E., and Millones, M. (2015). Titling community land to prevent deforestation: An evaluation of a best-case program in Morona-Santiago, Ecuador. Global Environmental Change, 33: 32-43.

[18]. Fahlbeck, E. (2007). The Horizon Problem in Agricultural Cooperatives–Only in Theory?. In Vertical Markets and Cooperative Hierarchies (pp. 255-274). Springer, Dordrecht.

[19]. Babulo, B., Muys, B., Nega, F., Tollens, E., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., and Mathijs, E. (2008). Household livelihood strategies and forest dependence in the highlands of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Agricultural Systems, 98(2): 147-155.

[20]. Nikkami, D., Omidvari, S., Barzegar, A., and Masihabadi, M. (2016). The effect of TMU and Geopedology working units in soil degradation mapping. Journal of Watershed Research, 29(3): 34-40.

[21]. Hungerford, H. R., and Volk, T. L. (1990). Changing learner behavior through environmental education. The Journal of Environmental Education, 21(3): 8-21.

[22] Arabkhedri, M. (2014). Review on major water erosion factors in Iran. Journal of Land Management System, 2: 17-26.

[23]. Schmidt, J. E. (2007). From intentions to actions: The role of environmental awareness on college students. Journal of Undergraduate Research, 10: 1-4.

[24]. Schirmer, J. (2011). Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 31(3): 382-391.

[25]. Byrka, K., Hartig, T., and Kaiser, F. G. (2010). Environmental attitude as a mediator of the relationship between psychological restoration in nature and self-reported ecological behavior. Psychological Reports, 107(3): 847-859.

[26] Salehi S. (2012). New environmental paradigm and energy consumption. Journal of Cultural Studies and Communication, 1(3):197-216.

[27]. Farahmand, M., Shokohifar, K., and Sayarkhalaj, H. (2014). A study of factor affecting environmental behavior of residents of the city of Yazd. Journal of Urban Studies, 4(10): 109-41.

[28]. Environmental Education Association of North America (2011). Developing a framework for assessing environmental literacy. Environmental Literacy Assessment Project, Washington.

[29]. Haji, M. S., and Nabaei, S. M. (2007). A Survey on Challenges and Problems of Natural Resources Development Methods in the Central Province. Journal of Modern Agricultural Findings, 1(2): 161-176.

[30]. Pasiecznik, N. (Ed.). (2015). Effective forest and farm producer organizations. European Tropical Forest Research Network.

[31]. Harper, M. (2010). The critical factors for the success of cooperatives and other sroups. Washington DC. Journal of Studies in the Social Philosophy of Cooperation, 3(1): 223-240.

[32]. Soltani, A., Sankhayan, P. L., and Hofstad, O. (2014). A dynamic bio-economic model for community management of goat and oak forests in Zagros, Iran. Ecological Economics, 106: 174-185.

[33]. Singh, P. K., and Hiremath, B. N. (2010). Sustainable livelihood security index in a developing country: A tool for development planning. Ecological Indicators, 10(2): 442-451.

[34]. Ranjit, Y. (2014). Determinants of people’s participation in forest protection and management: A study in Kaski, Nepal. Economic Journal of Development, 4(1): 175-186.

[35]. Pei, S., Zhang, G., and Huai, H. (2009). Application of traditional knowledge in forest management: Ethnobotanical indicators of sustainable forest use. Forest Ecology and Management, 257(10): 2017-2021.

[36]. Jieknyal, B. G. (2017). Qualitative utilization of the theory of planned behavior to understand subsistence farmers' food security conditions in Unity State, South Sudan. International Journal of Agricultural Extension, 5(3): 75-85.

[37]. Miri, M. R., Fani, M. J., Motalebi, M., and Nazemi, H. (2002). Using health belief model st ds on medical students. Knowledge Horizon Journal, 8(1): 26-34.

[38]. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2): 179-211.

[39] Karimi, M., Niknami, SH., Amin Shokravi, F., Shamsi, M., and Hatami, A. (2013). The relationship of breast self-examination with self-esteem and perceived benefits/barriers of self-efficacy in health behavior in postpartum women. Iranian Journal of Health, 15(68): 61-71.

[40]. Vignola, R., Klinsky, S., Tam, J., and McDaniels, T. (2013). Public perception, knowledge and policy support for mitigation and adaption to climate change in Costa Rica: comparisons with North American and European studies. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 18(3): 303-323.

[41]. Giliba, R. A., Mafuru, C. S., Paul, M., Kayombo, C. J., Kashindye, A. M., Chirenje, L. I., and Musamba, E. B. (2011). Human activities influencing deforestation on meru catchment forest Reserve, Tanzania. Journal of Human Ecology, 33(1): 17-20.

[42]. Gao, L., Wang, S., Li, J., and Li, H. (2017). Application of the extended theory of planned behavior to understand individual’s energy saving behavior in workplaces. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 127: 107-113.