ارزیابی مقاومت به خشکی در گلابی جنگلی (Pyrus boisseriana Buhse.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجو دکتری-دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

ژرم پلاسم‌های وحشی گونه‌های باغی منابع ارزشمندی هستند که می‌توانند در جنگلداری پایدار مورد توجه قرار بگیرند. در این پژوهش، ژرم‌پلاسم وحشی گلابی (Pyrus boisseriana Buhse.) از یک اکوسیستم جنگلی (جوزک- درکش، خراسان شمالی) جمع آوری و در یک آزمایش گلخانه‌ایی پتانسیل مقاومت آن به خشکی بر اساس پارامترهای فیزیولوژی، رشد و بیوشیمیایی ارزیابی شد. در شرایط گلخانه و با اعمال قطع آبیاری بر نهال‌های شش ماهه، پس از 18 روز علائم پژمردگی برگ ظاهر گردید. با شدت گرفتن خشکی پارامترهای هدایت روزنه‌ایی، فتوستز و تعرق به حداقل مقادیر می‌رسد. کاهش فتوسنتز در طول دوره آزمایش سبب کاهش رشد و میزان برگ‌زایی شده در حالی که بیوماس ریشه و ساقه در مقایسه با نهال‌های شاهد کاهش معنی‌داری نداشت. در انتهای آزمایش پتانسیل آبی برای گیاهان کنترل 66/0- و برای گیاهان تحت تنش خشکی 22/2- مگاپاسکال ثبت شده است. کاهش پتانسیل آبی سبب کاهش محتوای نسبی رطوبت برگ تا حدود 57 درصد و به دنبال آن افزایش نشت الکترولیت تا حدود 45 درصد شده است. محتوی کلروفیل a و b کاهش معنی‌داری نداشته‌ ولی محتوای کارتنوئید افزایش نشان داد. میزان پرولین افزایش معنی‌دار نداشت. در نهایت می‌توان اظهار کرد که گلابی جنگلی توانست با کاهش برخی از فعالیت‌های فیزیولوژیک (تبادلات گازی، پتانسیل آبی و محتوای نسبی رطوبت) و افزایش برخی از مولفه‌های آنتی اکسیدانتی (کارتنوئید) یک دوره 18 روزه بدون آبیاری را متحمل شود ولی بدون شک به مطالعات تکمیلی بویژه اعمال خشکی در عرصه و استفاده از آنالیز بیان ژن ها و پروتئین ها برای تصمیم‌گیری کلی نیاز است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Drought Resistance of Wild Pear (Pyrus boisseriana Buhse.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehrdad Zarafshar 1
  • Moslem Akbarinia 2
چکیده [English]

Trees are an important source of wild germplasm for sustainable forestry. Wild pear germplasm (Pyrus boisseriana) was collected from a forest ecosystem and resistance potential to drought stress was surveyed in a greenhouse. In six-month seedlings, signs of leaf rolling appeared after 18 days without water (drought simulation). Gas exchange parameters, such as net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and transpiration, decreased with increasing drought over the time. Decreasing net photosynthesis caused negative effects on growth and leaf expansion and caused the seedlings to drop their leaves. In contrast, however, there was no effect of drought on root and shoot biomass, compared to control plants. Mean xylem water potential was -0.66 and -2.22 for control and stressed seedlings respectively. The Xylem water potential led to decreasing of RWC (%) and finally electrolyte leakage increased by 45%. We did not observe any negative effect of drought on chlorophylls a and b, but the carotenoid content increased. We found no increase in the proline content of the stressed plants. Finally, wild pear are able to tolerate drought for about 18 days, by decreasing some physiological parameters (gas exchange, xylem water potential, and relative water content), and by increasing some antioxidant systems like carotenoid . Additional research, but with field populations, and with studies of gene and protein expression, are necessary before wild pear can be used as a source of germplasm.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Wild pear
  • wild ecosystem
  • Drought stress
  • pigments
  • resistance mechanism
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