اثر اسید جیبرلیک و لایه‌گذاری بر شکست خواب بذر افرای کَرب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 اولویت‌بندی زمانی، بهره‏برداری جنگل، سیل‏خیزی، شبیه‏سازی سیلاب، مدل HEC-HMS.

2 استاد گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، ایران

چکیده

برای شکست خواب بذر افرای کَرب تیمارهای اسید جیبرلیک در چهار غلظت (0، 250، 500، و 1000 میلی‌گرم در لیتر) و آغشتگی در مدت‌های 24 و 48 ساعت و لایه‌گذاری در بستر ماسة مرطوب در شرایط دمای گرم (18 تا 20 درجة سانتی‌گراد) و سرد (2 تا 4 درجة سانتی‌گراد) با مدت‌های متغیر انجام شد. اسید جیبرلیک و لایه‌گذاری و تأثیر توأم آن‌ها بر درصد و سرعت جوانه‌زنی معنادار بود. بیشترین درصد جوانه‌زنی بدون استفاده از اسید جیبرلیک در لایه‌گذاری 12 هفته گرم و 22 هفته سرد (53 درصد) و 8 هفته گرم و 26 هفته سرد (38 درصد) و نیز با استفاده از اسید جیبرلیک غلظت 1000 میلی‌گرم در لیتر (24 ساعت) در تلفیق با لایه‌گذاری 12 هفته گرم و 22 هفته سرد (39 درصد) اتفاق افتاد. در تیمارهای با و بدون اسید جیبرلیک در تلفیق با لایه‌گذاری فقط سرد (34 هفته) جوانه‌زنی رخ نداد. بیشترین سرعت جوانه‌زنی در تیمار لایه‌گذاری 12 هفته گرم و 22 هفته سرد (بدون اعمال اسید جیبرلیک) و سپس در تیمار اسید جیبرلیک 1000 میلی‌گرم در لیتر (24 و 48 ساعت) در لایه‌گذاری 12 هفته گرم و 22 هفته سرد رخ داد. در غلظت‌های 500 و 1000 میلی‌گرم در لیتر اسید جیبرلیک، سرعت جوانه‌زنی با افزایش دورة لایه‌گذاری گرم و کاهش دورة لایه‌گذاری سرد افزایش یافت. این تحقیق نشان داد لایه‌گذاری گرم و سرد به مدت 12‌‌هفته تیمار نسبتاً خوبی برای شکست خواب بذر کرب است. ادامة آزمایش با افزایش دورة لایه‌گذاری گرم و نیز استفاده از سایر ترکیبات محرک جوانه‌زنی ممکن است به نتایج بهتری برای شکست خواب بذر افرای کرب منتهی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of GA3 and Stratification on Seed Germination of Field Maple (Acer campestre L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • BAHRAM NASERI 1
  • Masoud Tabari 2
1 Ph.D. Student of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, I.R. Iran
2 Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, I.R. Iran
چکیده [English]

Dormancy breaking of field maple (Acer campestre L.) seed, by gibberllic acid (GA3) at 0, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm in 24 and 48 hours and stratification treatments in moist sand under warm (18-20‌°C) and cold (2-4°C) conditions were investigated. Effects of GA3 and stratification and their interaction on germination percent (GP) and germination speed (GS) were significant. The highest GP occurred at warm (12‌) (53%) and warm (8‌) (38%) without GA3, and at warm (12‌) with 1000 ppm GA3. At treatments with and without GA3 combined with cold stratification (34 weeks) no germination appeared. The highest GS allocated to warm of 12‌ without GA3, and then in such stratification combined with 1000 ppm GA3 (24 and 48 hours). At 500 and 1000 ppm GA3, the GS enhanced with increasing warm stratification period and decreasing cold stratification period. This research implies that stratification of A. campestre seed under 12-22 weeks warm-cold stratification is a relatively good treatment to remove dormancy. Continuation of experiment with longer periods of warm stratification or with some seed germination-promoting hormones may be resulted in better breaking dormancy of A. compestre seed.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cold stratification
  • dormancy breaking
  • field maple
  • GA3
  • seed germination
 

[1]. Smiris, P., Pipinis, E., Aslanidou, M., Mavrokordopoulou, O., Milios E., and Kouridakis, A. (2006). Germination study on Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae) and Podocytisus caramanicus Boiss. & Heldr. (Fabaceae). Journal of Biological Research, 5: 85-91.

[2]. Baskin, J. M. and Baskin, C. C. (2004). A classification system for seed dormancy. Seed Science Research, 14: 1-16.

[3]. Bradford, K. and Nonogaki, H. (2007). Seed development, dormancy and germination. In: Bradford, K. & Nonogaki, H. (eds). Annual Plant Reviews. Blackwell Publishing Press, Oxford. 27:176-263.

[4]. Anonymous .http//www. seednews.inf.br/ingles/seed94/artigocapa94a_ing.shtml (01/07/2005).

[5]. ISTA. (2008). International rules for seed testing. Seed Science and Technology, 13: 300-520.

[6]. Holdsworth, M. J., Bentsink, L., and Soppe, W. J. J. (2008). Molecular networks regulating Arabidopsis seed maturation, after ripening, dormancy and germination. New Phytologist, 179, 33-54.

[7]. Nakajima M., Shimada, A., and Takashi, Y. (2006). Identification and characterization of Arabidopsis gibberellin receptors. The Plant Journal, 46: 880-889.

[8]. Ogawa, M., Hanada, A., Yamauchi, Y., Kuwahara, A., Kamiya, Y., and Yamaguchi, S. (2003). Gibberellin biosynthesis and response during arabidopsis seed germination. Plant Cell, 15: 1591-1604.

[9]. Webb, D. P. and Wareing, P. F. (1972). Seed dormancy in Acer pseudoplatanus L.: The role of the covering structures. Journal of Experimental Botany, (23) 76: 813-829.

[10]. Willan, R. L. (1985). A guide to forest seed handling with special reference to the tropics. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation Forestry Papers 20 (2): 379

[11]. Zarafshar, M., Tabari, M., Sattarian, A., and Bayat, D. (2012). The effect of gibberllic acid and sulfuric acid on germination characters of Mediterranean hackberry (Celtis australis L.). Research – Scientific Quarterly Plant and Ecosystem, 8 (30): 29-38.

[12]. GibaI Z., Grubisic´, D., and Konjevic´, R. (1993). The effect of white light, growth regulators and temperature on the germination of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 21: 521-529.

[13]. Nicolas C. and Rodrigues, D. (1996). Antagonistic effects of abscisic acid and gibberellic acid on the breaking of dormancy of Fagus sylvatica seeds. Physiologia Plantarum, 96: 244-250.

[14]. Koyuncu, F. (2005). Breaking seed dormancy in black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) by cold stratification and exogenous application of gibberellic acid. Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Botanica, 4: 23-26.

[15]. Rehman, S. and Park, I. H. (2000). Effect of scarification, GA3 and chilling on the germination of goldenrain-tree (Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm.) seeds. Scientia Horticulturae, 85: 319-324.

[16]. Petrova, V. N. and Nikolaeva, M. G. (1974). Role of native abscisic acid in dormancy of seeds of Tatar maple. Soviet plant physiology (Eng.Transl. Fiziologiia Rastenii), 21: 279-284.

[17]. Schopmeyer, C. S. (1974). Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States, Technical Coordinator, Washington, D. C., U. S. Department of Agriculture. Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 450, 883 pp.

[18]. Toth, J. and Garrett, P. W. (1989). Optimum temperatures for stratification of several maple species, Tree Planters Notes: 9-12.

[19]. Jensen, M. (2001). Temperature relations of germination in Acer platanoides L. Seeds. In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Researches, 16: 404-414.

[20]. Drăghici, C. and Abrudan, I. V. (2011). The effect of different stratification methods on the germination of Acer platanoides and Acer campestre seeds. bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov Series II: Forestry. Wood Industry. Agricultural Food Engineering, 4 (53): 29-34.

[21]. Yilmaz, M. (2006). Depth of dormancy and desiccation tolerance in Acer trautvetteri Medv. seeds. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry,31: 201-205.

[22]. Marshall, J., Beardmore, T., Whittle, C. A., Wang, B., Rutledge, R. G., and Blumwald E. (1999). The effects of paclobutrazol, abscisic acid, and gibberellin on germination and early growth in silver, red, and hybrid maple. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 30: 557-565.

[23]. Browicz, K. (1982). Chorology of trees and shrubs in south-west Asia and adjacent regions. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Dendrology, Polish Scientific Publishers, Warsaw, Poland.

[24]. Panwar – Bhardwaj, S. D. (2005). Handbook of Practical Forestry. Agrobios (India): 191 pp.

[25]. Macdonald, B. (2006). Practical woody plant propagation for nursery growers. Timber Press, Inc., Portland, Oregon, USA, 669 pp.

[26]. Deng, Z. J., Cheng, H. Y., and Song, S. Q. (2010). Effects of temperature, scarification, dry storage, stratification, phytormone and light on dormancy-breaking and germination of Cotinus coggygria var. cinerea (Anacardiaceae) seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 38: 572-584.

[27]. Karam, N. S. and Al-Salem, M. M. (2001). Breaking dormancy in Arbutus andrachne L. seeds by stratification and gibberellic acid. Seed Science and Technology, 29: 51-56.

[28]. Rezaei. A., Yazdiyan, F., Nasery B., and Hedayati, M. A. (2012). A study of hydrogen peroxide effects on oriental beech (Fagus orientalis) nuts germination stimulation. Annals of Biological Research, 3 (10): 4728-4733.

[29]. Pijut, P. M. (2008). Carpinus. In: Bonner FT and Karrafalt RP (eds.). Woody Plant Seed Manual, Agriculture Handbook, 727, USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 328-332.

[30]. Chen, S. Y., Chien, C. T., Chung, J. D., Yang Y. S., and Kuo, S. R. (2007). Dormancy-break and germination in seeds of Prunus campanulata (Rosaceae): role of covering layers and changes in concentration of abscisicacid and gibberellins. Seed Science Research, 17: 21-32.

[31]. Chien, C. T., Kuo-Huang, L. L., and Lin, T. P. (1998). Changes in ultra-structure and abscisic acid level, and response to applied gibberellins in Taxus mairei seeds treated with warm and cold stratification. Annals of Botany,81: 41-47.

[32]. Pipinis, E., Milios, E., Kiamos, N., Mavrokordopoulou, O., and Smiris, P. (2012). Effects of stratification and pre-treatment with gibberellic acid on seed germination of two Carpinus species. Seed Science and Technology,40: 21-31.

[33]. Al-Absi, K. M. (2010). The effects of different pre-sowing seed treatments on breaking dormancy of mahaleb cherries seeds, Prunus mahaleb L. Seed Sciences & Technology, 38, 332-340.

[34]. Bourgoin, A. and Simpson, J. D. (2004). Soaking, moist-chilling, and temperature effects on germination of Acer pensylvanicum seeds. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34: 2181-2185.