اولویت‏بندی زیرحوضه‌های مناسب بهره‌برداری جنگل با استفاده از مدل HEC-HMS (مطالعة موردی: جنگل خیرود)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی‌‏ ارشد مهندسی جنگل، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه جنگل‌داری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 استادیار گروه احیای مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

پوشش جنگلی یکی از عوامل بسیار مؤثر بر کاهش سیلاب در شمال ایران است؛ به طوری که در سال‌های اخیر تخریب، تغییر کاربری، و بهره‌برداری بی‌رویه از مناطق جنگلی به‌شدت سبب افزایش تعداد و بزرگی سیلاب شده است. تاکنون مطالعات اندکی در زمینة هیدرولوژی جنگل‏های کشور، به‏ویژه جنگل‏های شمال، صورت گرفته است. در این مطالعه، با بررسی تأثیر اجرای عملیات‌های بهره‌برداری فرضی بر هیدروگراف خروجی حوضه، امکان اولویت‌بندی زیرحوضه‌های جنگلی جهت بهره‏برداری جنگل فراهم شد. ابتدا با روش SCS و مدل بارش‌ـ رواناب HEC-HMS سیلاب طرح در دورة بازگشت‏های 2‏‏، 5، 10،‏ 25، 50، و 100 سال شبیه‏سازی شد. نتایج نشان داد زیرحوضه‏های A1 و A2 با بیشترین دبی اوج در خروجی این زیرحوضه‏ها در رتبة اول سیل‌خیزی قرار دارد؛ به طوری که با اجرای سناریوهای بهره‌برداری نیز در این زیرحوضه‌ها مقادیر شاخص‏های f و F% نسبت به سایر زیرحوضه‏ها به‌شدت افزایش می‌یابد. هرچند افزایش شاخص‌های f با افزایش درصد بهره‏برداری در زیرحوضة A1 و A2 تا حدودی مشابه است، با درنظرگرفتن بزرگی مساحت، پاسخ هیدرولوژیکی حوضه نسبت به بهره‌برداری از زیرحوضة A1 تا حد زیادی افزایش پیدا می‌کند. مکان‌یابی مناطق مناسب جهت اجرای عملیات بهره‌برداری نیز نشان داد به ترتیب زیرحوضه‏های B3، A4، B2، A3، B1، A2، و در نهایت A1 در اولویت قرار دارند و در غالب زیرحوضه‌ها با اجرای سناریوی بهره‌برداری بالای 21 درصد مقدار دبی اوج و حجم سیلاب به‌شدت افزایش می‏یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Prioritization of Appropriate Sub-basins in order to Forest Harvesting using HEC-HMS Model (Case Study: Kheyrud Forest)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Moradnezhadi 1
  • Meghdad Jourgholami 2
  • Arash Malekian 3
1 MSc. Student of Forest Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, I.R. Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, I.R. Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, I.R. Iran
چکیده [English]

 
Forest cover is one of the most effective factors in reducing flooding in northern Iran, so that in recent years the destruction, land use changing and uncontrolled harvesting of forest areas, has greatly increased the number and magnitude of floods. So far, there have been few studies on forest hydrology in Iran, particularly the northern Hyrcanian forests. This study examines the impact of a hypothetical harvesting operation, on the basin output hydrograph, will provide the opportunity to study the prioritization of forest basin for harvesting operations. SCS method and rainfall - runoff HEC-HMS model  were used to simulate the design flood return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years. The results showed that the A1 and A2 sub-basin have maximum peak flow at the outlet that ranked in the first place of flooding. So that, the implementation of harvesting scenarios in these sub-basin, the f and F% indices values have been increased intensively ​​than other sub-basins, Although, it was similar trend between harvesting operation increasing and increasing f parameters in A1 and A2 sub-basins. But considering the area, greatly increases of the hydrological response to the harvesting operation was occurred in the A1 sub-basin. Results for positioning suitable areas for harvesting operations, also showed that the priority order of B3, A4, B2, A3, B1, A2, and finally A1 sub-basins. With implementation of the harvesting operation scenarios over 21 percent, in the most sub-basins, the amount of peak flow and flood volume have been increased greatly.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Flooding
  • Prioritization
  • Forest harvesting
  • flood simulation
  • HEC-HMS model
 

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