آثار چوب‌کشی زمینی با اسکیدر چرخ لاستیکی تیمبرجک C 450 بر برخی خصوصیات فیزیکی خاک‏های جنگلی (مطالعة موردی: بخش گرازبن، جنگل خیرود)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی‌ارشد مهندسی جنگل، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه جنگلداری و اقتصاد جنگل، دانشکدة منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

عملیات بهره‏برداری جنگل باعث ایجاد صدمات و تغییرات در برخی خصوصیات فیزیکی خاک می‏شود. لذا، لازم است دربارة میزان تخریب ویژگی‎های فیزیکی خاک تحقیقات لازم صورت گیرد. هدف از این پژوهش عبارت است از بررسی تغییرات مذکور در مسیر چوب‌کشی ناشی از تردد اسکیدر چرخ لاستیکی کابلی تیمبرجک C 450 از طریق اندازه‌گیری فاکتورهای بافت خاک، وزن مخصوص ظاهری، تخلخل و مقاومت به نفوذ خاک در پارسل‌های 311 و 319 سری گرازبن جنگل آموزشی و پژوهشی خیرود نوشهر. این پژوهش در غالب طرح فاکتوریل کاملاً تصادفی اجراشد. تیمارها شامل دو شیب زمین (رو به بالا و رو به پایین)، سه سطح تردد ماشین شامل کم (کمتر از 3 بار)، متوسط (3 تا 7 بار) و زیاد (بیش از 7 بار) و دو عمق خاک (10-0 و 20-10 سانتی‌متر) است. نتایج نشان داد که شدت تردد ماشین و جهت چوب‌کشی از نظر آماری بر مقدار کوبیدگی خاک مسیرهای اسکیدررو اثر معنا‏داری دارد. افزایش شدت تردد ماشین باعث افزایش کوبیدگی و مقاومت به نفوذ خاک می‎شود. البته، شدت این تغییرات در ترددهای اولیه (کمتر از 3 تردد) بیشتر است و اگرچه ترددهای بعدی سبب تغییر این فاکتورها شد، ولی روند آن معنا‌دار نیست. کوبیدگی خاک در شیب رو به بالا بیشتر از شیب رو به پایین و در عمق 10-20 بیشتر از عمق 0-10 سانتی‌متر است. بنابراین، می‏توان نتیجه‏گیری کرد که عملیات چوب‌کشی باید در مسیرهای رو به پایین با شیب کمتر از 20 درصد برنامه‏ریزی شود و مسیرهای خروج چوب با شیب رو به بالای بیش از 10 درصد از عملیات چوب‌کشی مستثنی شود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of ground-based skidding using wheeled skidder timberjack 450C on forest soil physical properties (Case study: Gorazbon Disrict, Kheyrud Forest)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shokouh Soltanpour 1
  • Meghdad Jourgholami 2
1 MSc. Student, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, I.R. Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Forestry and Forest Economics, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, I.R. Iran
چکیده [English]

Forest harvesting operations for extracting of forest products in these trails, causing extensive damage in a wide range of soil and its productivity every year, therefore it is necessary to research about degradation of soil properties should be down. The aim of this study was investigate changes in the skid trails soil physical characteristics due to wheeled cable skidder traffic by measuring soil texture, bulk density, porosity and soil penetration resistence. For this purposes, 311 and 319 compartments of Gorazbon district in Kheyrud educational and research forest were selected. This study was conducted in a completely randomized factorial design and treatments consisted of two slop (uphill and downhill), three levels of skidder traffic intensity such as low intensity (less than 3 passes), moderate (3 to 7 passes) and very large (more than 7 passes) and two soil depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm).The results showed that machine traffic intensity and skid trail slop statistically had significant effects on soil compaction. Soil compaction and penetratin resistance will increase with increasing of machine traffic, but the largest percentage increase observe in initial passes (less than 3 times) although subsequent passes change this factors, but its trend is not significant, also soil compaction is greater than in the uphill skidding of downhill skidding and in the 0-10 cm soil depth greater than 10-20 cm. Hence, we concluded that skidding operation should be planned in slope lower than 20% and uphill skidding (higher than 10%) should be excluded from ground-based logging systems.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • penetration resistance
  • slope gradient
  • Soil compaction
  • soil depth
  • total porosity
 

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