آثار غرقابی طولانی‏مدت خاک بر تبادلات گازی برگ و رشد نهال‏های صنوبر دلتوئیدس و دارتالاب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد جنگل‌داری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه جنگل‌داری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، نور، ایران

چکیده

در این پژوهش آثار غرقابی بر ویژگی‏های مورفولوژیکی و تبادلات گازی نهال‏های صنوبر دلتوئیدس کلن 51/77 و دارتالاب در یک دورة 450 روزه در منطقه‏ای با اقلیم خیلی مرطوب بررسی شد. نهال‏ها تحت شرایط غرقابی 3 سانتی‏متر و 15 سانتی‏متر بالای سطح خاک و تیمار شاهد (آبیاری بر اساس ظرفیت زراعی خاک) در یک آزمایش صحرایی بررسی شدند. در پایان دوره، زنده‏مانی و رویش ارتفاعی نهال‏های دارتالاب تحت تنش غرقابی تغییری نکرد (P<0.01)، اما در صنوبر در تیمار غرقابی عمقی کاهش یافت (P<0.01). تحت تأثیر غرقابی، رویش قطری در گونة دارتالاب افزایش و در صنوبر کاهش یافت. سطح برگ، تجمع زی توده، و تبادلات گازی (فتوسنتز، هدایت روزنه، و تعرق) برگ در هر دو گونه در شرایط غرقابی کاهش یافت. به‌طور کلی، اگرچه در شرایط غرقابی در هر دو گونه در اغلبِ پارامترهای مورفو ـ فیزیولوژی میزانی افت مشاهده می‏شود، به‌علت رضایت‌بخش‌بودن برخی دیگر از پارامترها همانند زنده‌مانی، رویش ارتفاعی، و زی تودة ساقه در دورة 450 روزه، می‏توان انتظار داشت که امکان رویش و ماندگاری هر دو گونه در شرایط غرقابی برای سال‏های آینده متصور باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Influences of Prolonged Soil Flooding on Leaf Gas Exchanges and Growth of Populusdeltoides and Taxodiumdistichum Seedlings

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ehsan Ghanbary 1
  • Masoud Tabari 2
1 MSc. in Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, I.R. Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, I.R. Iran
چکیده [English]

The effects of 450-days of flooding on morphological and gas exchanges responses were investigated under controlled conditions for Populus deltoides (colon 77.51) and Taxodium distichum seedlings. Seedlings were subjected to three outdoor treatments: not flooded (control), flooded to 3 cm above the soil surface (shallow flooded), and flooded to 15 cm above the soil surface (deep flooded). Flooding had no significant effect on the height growth and survival of T. distichum seedlings during 450-day period, but survival and height growth of deep flooded seedlings in P. deltoides were decreased. Under flooding conditions diameter growth increased in T. distichum and decreased in P. deltoides. Leaf area and biomass accumulations reduced by flooding in both species. Flooding reduced net photosynthesis, stomata conductance and transpiration in both species. Overall, even though at flooding status in both species some morpho-physiological variables reduced but due to satisfactory of some other variables like survival, height growth and shoot biomass in 450 days of experiment, possibility of growth and survival of seedlings will be excepted.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Leaf area
  • photosynthetic
  • Stomata conductance
  • Survival
  • Transpiration
[1]. Bailey-Serres, J., andVoesenek, L.A.(2008).Flooding stress: acclimations and genetic diversity.Annual Reviewof Plant Biology, 59: 313-39.

[2]. Perata, P., Armstrong, W., andVoesenek, L.A.C.J. (2011). Plants and flooding stress.New Phytologist, 190: 269-273.

[3].Jackson, M. B., Ishizawa, K., and Ito, O. (2009). Evolution and mechanisms of plant tolerance to flooding stress. Annals of Botany, 103: 137-142.

[4]. Kozlowski, T.T. (1997). Responses of woody plants to flooding and salinity. Tree Physiology, 1: 1-29.

[5].Kozlowski, T.T. (2002). Physiological-ecological impacts of flooding on riparian forest ecosystems. Wetlands, 22: 550-561.

[6]Rosales, J., Petts, G., and Knab-Visto, C. (2001). Ecological gradients within the riparian forests of the lower Caura River, Venezuela. Plant Ecology, 152: 101-118.

[7]. Glenz, C., Schlaepfer, R., Iorgulescu, I., and Kienast, F. (2006). Flooding tolerance of central European tree and shrub species. Forest Ecology and Management, 235: 1-13.

[8].King, S.L. (1995). Effects of flooding regimes on two impounded bottomland hardwood stands. Wetlands, 15: 172-284.

[9].Pezeshki, S.R. (1994). Response of bald cypress (Taxodiumdistichum) seedlings to hypoxia: leaf protein content, ribulose-1,5- bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity and photosynthesis. Photosynthetica, 28: 423-430.

[10]. Domingo, R., Pérez-Pastor, A., and Ruiz-Sánchez, M.C. (2002). Physiological responses of apricot plants grafted on two different rootstocks to flooding conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology, 159: 725-732.

[11].Shanklin, J., and Kozlowski, T.T. (1985). Effect of flooding of soil on growth and subsequent responses of Taxodiumdistichum seedlings to SO2. Environmental Pollution, 38: 199-212.

[12]. Gladwin, D.N., and James Roelle, E. (1998). Survival of plains cottonwood (Populusdeltoides sub sp. Monilifera) and saltcedar (Tamarixramosissima) seedlings in response to flooding. Wetlands, 18: 669-674.

[13].Cao, F.L., and Conner, W. (1999). Selection of flood-tolerant Populusdeltoides clones for reforestation projects in China. Forest Ecology and Management, 117: 211-220.

[14].Vanna, C.D., and Megonigal. J.P. (2006). Productivity responses of Acerrubrum and Taxodiumdistichum seedlings to elevated CO2 and flooding. Environmental Pollution, 116: 531-536.

[15]. Gong, J.R., Zhang, X.S., Huang, Y.M., and Zhang. C. L. (2007). The effects of flooding on several hybrid poplar clones in Northern China. Agroforestry Systems, 69: 77-88.

[16]. Sadati, S.A., Tabari, M., Assareh, M.H., HeydariSharifabad, H., and Fayyaz, P. (2010). Response of PopuluscaspicaBornm. to flooding stress. Iranian Forest & Popular Researches, 19 (3): 339-354.

[17]. Yang, Y., Liu, Q., Han, C., Qiao, Y.Z., Yao, X.Q., and Yin, H.J. (2007). Influence of water stress and low irradiance on morphological and physiological characteristics of Piceaasperata seedlings.Photosynthetica, 45: 613-619.

[18]. Yin, Ch., Pang, X., and Chen, K. (2009). The effects of water, nutrient availability and their interaction on the growth, morphology and physiology of two poplar species. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 67: 196-203.

[19]. Yamamoto, F. (1992). Effects of depth of flooding on growth and anatomy of stems and roots of Taxodiumdistichum. IAWA Bulletin, 13: 93-104.

[20]. Li, S., Pezeshki, S.R., and Shields, F.D. (2006). Partial flooding enhances aeration in adventitious roots of black willow (Salix nigra) cuttings. Plant Physiology, 163: 619-628.

[21].Shiono, K.H., Takahashi, T.D., and Nakazono, M. (2008). Role of ethylene in acclimations to promote oxygen transport in roots of plants in waterlogged soils. Plant Science, 175: 52-58.

[22].Anderson, P.H., and Pezeshki, S.R. (1999). The effects of intermittent flooding on seedlings of three forest species. Photosynthetica, 37: 543-552.

[23]. Pezeshki, S.R. (2001). Wetland plant responses to soil flooding. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 46: 299-312.

[24]. Pezeshki, S.R., Pardue, J.H., and DeLaune, R.D. (1996). Leaf gas exchange and growth of flood-tolerant and flood-sensitive tree species under low soil redox conditions. Tree Physiology, 16: 453-458.

[25]. Herrera, A., Tezara, W., Marín, O., and Rengifo, E. (2008). Stomatal and non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis in trees of a tropical seasonally flooded forest. PhysiologiaPlantarum, 134: 41-48.

[26].Mielke, M.S., and Schaffer, B. (2010). Photosynthetic and growth responses of Eugenia uniflora L. seedlings to soil flooding and light intensity. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 68: 113-121.

[27]. Andersen, P.C., Lombard, P.B., and Westwood, M.N. (1984). Effect of root anaerobiosis on the water relations of several Pyrus species. PhysiologiaPlantarum, 62: 245-252.

[28].Davies, F.S., and Flore, J.A. (1986). Flooding, gas exchange and hydraulic conductivity of highbush blueberry. PhysiologiaPlantarum, 67: 545-551.

[29]. Liao, C.T., and Lin, C.H. (1994). Effect of flooding stress on photosynthetic activities of Momordicacharantia. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 32: 1-5.

[30]. Irfan, M., Hayat, S., Hayat, Q., Afroz, S., and Ahmad, A. (2010). Physiological and biochemical changes in plants under waterlogging.Protoplasma, 241: 3-17.

[31].Parad, Gh.A.,Zarafshar, M., Striker, G.G., and  Sattarian, A. (2013). Some physiological and morphological responses of Pyrusboissieriana to flooding. Trees, 27:1387–1393.