تأثیر جنگل‏کاری با گونه‏‏‏‏های سریع‏الرشد غیربومی بر تنوع گیاهیِ زیراشکوب (مطالعة موردی: پارک جنگلی گهر دورود در استان لرستان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جنگل‏داری، دانشکدة کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان، خرم‏آباد، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد رشتة جنگل‏داری، دانشکدة کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان، خرم‏آباد، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری بیوسیستماتیک گیاهی، دانشکدة زیست‏شناسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار گروه خاک‏شناسی، دانشکدة کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان، خرم‏آباد، ایران

چکیده

جنگل‏کاری‏‏ها از طریق تأثیر بر ویژگی‏‏های خاک و سایة ناشی از تاج پوشش می‏‏توانند تأثیر مثبت یا منفی بر تنوع گیا‏‏هان زیر‌اشکوب داشته باشند. در‏ این مطالعه، تأثیرات جنگل‏کاری با گونة کاج بروسیا بر تنوع گیاهی زیر‌اشکوب بررسی شد. بدین‌منظور، در شکل زمین یکسان با استفاده از قطعات نمونة 400 متر مربعی حاوی 5 قطعه‌نمونة 4 متر مربعی در مرکز و چهار گوشة آن، از تنوع گیاهی و خاک در سه افق 0ـ10، 10ـ20، و 20ـ30 سانتی‏متری در سه تیپ جنگل‏کاری خالص کاج بروسیا، آمیختة اقاقیا و کاج بروسیا، اقاقیای خالص، و تودة جنگلی طبیعی بلوط ایرانی، به‏عنوان شاهد، نمونه‏‏برداری شد. نتایج نشان داد که میزان غنا در تیپ جنگل‏‏کاری کاج بروسیا، آمیختة اقاقیا و بروسیا، اقاقیا، و تودة بلوط‏ ایرانی به‌ترتیب برابر 16، 30، 31، و 34 گونه بوده است. کمترین میزان تشابه بر‌اساس شاخص‏‏های سورنسون و جاکارد بین تیپ جنگل‏کاری بروسیا با بلوط، و بیشترین تشابه بین جنگل‏کاری اقاقیا با جنگل‏کاری آمیختة اقاقیاـ‌بروسیا وجود داشت. بیشترین و کمترین مقدار شاخص غالبیت گونه‏‏ای سیمپسون به‌ترتیب در تیپ بروسیا و در تودة بلوط، و بیشترین و کمترین میزان تنوع و تعداد گونۀ ‏‏اندمیک در تودة بلوط (شش گونه) و در تیپ بروسیا (یک گونه) مشاهده شد. با توجه به تغییرات محدود در برخی عناصر خاک در افق 0ـ10، تغییرات در تنوع گیا‏‏هان زیراشکوب را می‏‏توان علاوه بر خاک، ناشی از تاج پوشش سنگین گونة کاج بروسیا و اثر سایة آن دانست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Reforestation by Exotic Fast Growing Species on Understory Plants Diversity; Case Study: Gahar Forest Park, Doroud, Lorestan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Babak Pilehvar 1
  • Masoome Matinkia 2
  • Gholamhasan Veiskarami 3
  • Hamid Reza Matinfar 4
1 Assistant Professor, Forestry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, I.R. Iran
2 M.Sc. Graduate, Forestry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, I.R. Iran
3 Ph.D. Student of Plant biosystematic, Faculty of Biology, Tehran University, Tehran, I.R. Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, I.R. Iran
چکیده [English]

Plantations can effect on understory plants by changing in soil components or by shade effects of
canopy cover positively or negatively. This study aimed to investigate effects of reforestation by
exotic fast growing trees on understory plants diversity. Three plantation stands, Turkish red pine
stand, black locust stand, and mixed stand of Turkish red pine and black locust, and a natural Iranian
Oak stand were sampled. In order to measure plants diversity, sampling was performed in the same
physiographic landform, using 400 m2 main plots composed of 5, 4 m2 subplots in center and corners
of main plot. Soils were sampled in three 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm horizons. Results showed that
species richness in Turkish red pine, black locust stand, and mixed stand of Turkish red pine and black
locust, and Iranian Oak stand were 16 – 30 – 31- and 34 respectively. Sorenson and Jaccard similarity
indices showed the most similarity between black locust stand, and mixed stand of Turkish red pine
and black locust, and least similarity between Iranian Oak stand and Turkish red pine stand. Maximum
and minimum value of Simpson dominance index was seen in Turkish red pine stand and Iranian Oak
stand respectively. Iranian Oak stand with six species had the most endemic ground flora species and
Turkish red pine with one species had the least. Respect to trivial changes in soil properties, in
addition to soil changes effects, changes in species diversity may relate to heavy canopy cover and
shade effects of it.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biodiversity
  • Black locust
  • Iranian Oak
  • plantation
  • Turkish red pine
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