تعیین حداقل سطح مناسب بررسی الگوی پراکنش مکانی برودار (Quercus brantii Lindl.) در توده های کمتر دخالت‌شده جنگل‌های مریوان با استفاده از تابع K رایپلی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جنگلداری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهشی، بخش تحقیقات جنگل، مؤسسۀ تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، تهران، ایران


جنگل‌های ناحیۀ رویشی زاگرس امروزه به‌علت قطع بی‌رویه و چرای مفرط غالباً به حالت مخروبه درآمده‌اند، ولی با‌این‌حال هنوز می‌توان مناطقی را یافت که به‌دلایل گوناگونی، چون دور از دسترس‌بودن یا مقدس‌بودن، کمتر تخریب شده‌اند. از این مناطق می‌توان به‌عنوان مناطق شاهد یا الگو در مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی سایر مناطق جنگلی استفاده کرد. در این پژوهش به نحوة پراکنش درختان در سطح افق (الگوی مکانی)، که از ویژگی‌های شاخص توده‌های جنگلی است، و نیز تعیین حداقل سطح مناسب برای بررسی آن، پرداخته شده است. بدین‌منظور سه سطح یک‌هکتاری جنگلی به ابعاد 100  ´100 متر در سه منطقۀ کمتر‌دخالت‌شده (قبرستان) در اطراف شهرستان مریوان انتخاب شدند که گونة غالب آن‌ها برودار بود. در داخل هر یک از این سطوح یک‌هکتاری، سه سطح مربع‌شکل دیگر به‌ترتیب با مساحت‌های 25/0، 5/0، و 75/0 هکتار به‌صورت تودرتو اجرا شد. سپس، موقعیت مکانی کلیۀ درختان در داخل قطعات یک‌هکتاری به‌روش فاصله‌ـ‌آزیموت تعیین و الگوی پراکنش مکانی درختان با استفاده از تابع K رایپلی به‌تفکیک قطعات مختلف بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که الگوی پراکنش مکانی درختان جز برای سطح 25/0 هکتار، کپه‌ای، و حداقل سطح مناسب برای این بررسی، 5/0 هکتار است.



عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining the Minimum Plot Size to Study the Spatial Patterns of Manna Oak Trees (Quercus brantii Lindl.) Using Ripley›s K- Function at Less-Disturbed Stands in Marivan Forests

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parisa Batoubeh 1
  • Reza Akhavan 2
  • Mahdi Pourhashemi 2
  • Hadi Kia-Daliri 3
1 M.Sc.Student, Islamic AzadUniversity, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, I.R. Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Forest Research Division, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, I.R. Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Islamic AzadUniversity, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, I.R. Iran
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, the Zagros forests are being destroyed due to over pollarding and overgrazing of
the trees. However, some less-disturbed and wild regions can be found in these forests that
have not been destroyed due to being un-accessible or being a holy place. These regions can
be used as a suitable standard for planning and managing the other forest areas. In this study,
we investigated one of the indicator characteristics of the forest stands, i.e., spatial patterns of
trees, and determined the suitable plot size to study it. For this purpose, 3 one-hectare (100 m
× 100 m) nested plots with areas of .25, .5, and .75 of ha in less-disturbed stands were selected.
Coordinates of all trees were determined using azimuth-distance method, and the spatial point
pattern was analyzed through Ripleyls K- function for each nested plots, individually. The
results showed that the spatial patterns of the trees in all nested plots, except for the .25 ha,
were clustered, and the minimum plot size to study the spatial patterns in such forest stands
was .5 hectare.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • less-disturbed stand
  • Plot size
  • Ripley's K- function
  • spatial pattern
  • Zagros
[1]. Marvie Mohadjer, M.R. (2005). Silviculture. University of Tehran Press, Tehran.
[2]. Fattahi, M. (1994). Study of Zagros Forests and the most important factors of their degradation.
Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands publication, 63 pp.
[3]. Jazirehie, M.H., and Ebrahimi Rostaghi, M. (2003). Silviculture in Zagros, University of Tehran
Press, Tehran.
[4]. Heidari, B. (2005). Study of forest structure in natural and degraded stands of Baneh. M.Sc.
Thesis, University of Mazandaran, 75 pp.
[5]. Salehian, M. (2009). Comparison of forest structure utilized by traditional method with lessdisturbed
forest stands in northern Zagros, Baneh. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Kurdistan, 84 pp.
[6]. Shakeri, Z. (2006). Ecological and silvicultural effects of pollarding on oak forests of Baneh.
M.Sc. Thesis, University of Tehran, 62 pp.
[7]. Dale, M.R.T. (1999). Spatial pattern analysis in plant ecology. Cambridge University press.
[8]. Krebs, C.J. (1999). Ecological Methodology. 2th Edition. Addison Wesley Educational
Publisher, Inc. Benjamin/Cummings imprint.
[9]. Wong, D.W.S., and Lee, J. (2005). Statistical analysis of geographic information with Arc View
GIS and Arc GIS. USA, John Wiley and Sons.
[10]. Jayaraman, K. (1999). A Statistical Manual for Forestry Research, FORSPA-FAO Publication.
[11]. Aakala, T., Kuuluvainen, T., De Grandpre, L., and Gauthier, S. (2007). Trees dying standing
in the northeastern boreal old-growth forests of Quebec: spatial patterns, rates and temporal
variation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 37: 50-61.
[12]. Longuetaud, F., Seifert, T., Leban, J.M., and Pretzsch, H. (2008). Analysis of long-term
dynamics of crowns of sessile oak at the stand level by means of spatial statistics. Forest Ecology
and Management, 255: 2007-2019.
[13]. Zenner, E.K., and Peck, J.E. (2009). Characterizing structural conditions in mature managed
red pin: spatial dependency of metrics and adequacy of plot size. Forest Ecology and Management,
257: 311-320.
[14]. Rozas, V., Zas, R., and Solla, A. (2009). Spatial structure of deciduous forest stands with
contrasting human influence in northwest Spain. European Journal of Forest Research, 128: 273-
[15]. Basiri, R., Sohrabi, H., and Mozayan, M. (2005). A statistical analysis of the spatial pattern of
trees species in Ghamisheleh Marivan region, Iran. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 59 (3):
[16]. Heidari, H., Zobeiri, M., Namiranian, M., and Sobhani, H. (2007). Application of T- square
sampling method in Zagross forests (Case study: Kermanshah province). Iranian Journal of
Forest and Poplar Research, 15 (1): 32-42.
[17]. Erfanifard, S.Y., Feghhi, J., Zobeiri, M., and Namiranian, M. (2008). Investigation on the
spatial pattern of trees in Zagros forests. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 60 (4): 1319-1328.
[18]. Safari, A., Shabanian, N., Heidari, R.H., Erfanifard, S.Y., and Pourreza, M. (2010). Spatial
pattern of oak manna trees (Quercus brantii Lindl.) in Bayangan forests of Kermanshah. Iranian
Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 18 (4): 596-608.
[19]. Alavi, S.J., Zahedi Amiri, Gh., and Marvie Mohadjer, M.R. (2006). Studying the spatial pattern
of Elm tree (Ulmus glabra) (Case study: Kheirodkenar-Noushahr). Iranian Journal of Natural
Resources, 58 (4): 793-804.
[20]. Habashi, H., Hosseini, S.M., Mohannadi, J., and Rahmani, R. (2007). Stand structure and
spatial pattern of trees in mixed Hyrcanian beech forests of Iran. Iranian Journal of Forest and
Poplar Research, 15 (1): 55-64.
[21]. Akhavan, R., Sagheb- Talebi, Kh., Hassani, M., and Parhizkar, P. (2010). Spatial pattern in
untouched beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stands within forest development stages in Kelardasht
region of Iran. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 18 (2): 322-336.
[22] ]. Anonymous, (2011). Metrological information, Metrology office of Kurdistan province.
[23] Moeur, M. (1993). Characterizing spatial patterns of tree using stem- mapped data. Forest
Science. 39 (4): 756-775.
[24]. Besag, J. (1977). Contribution to the discussion of Dr. Ripleyls paper. Journal of the Royal
Statistical Society, 39 (2): 193-195.
[25]. Cressie, N.A.C. (1993). Statistics for spatial data. Wiley, New York.
[26]. Mitchell, A. (2005). The ESRI guide to GIS analysis. Vol. 2, ESRI Press. USA.
[27]. Salas, C., LeMay, V., Nunez, P., Pachecoand, P., and Espinosa, A. (2006). Spatial patterns in an
old- growth Nothofagus oblique forest in South-central Chile. Forest Ecology and Management,
231: 38-46.
[28]. Woodall, C.W., and Graham, J.M. (2004). A technique for conducting point pattern analysis of
cluster plot stem- maps. Forest Ecology and Management, 198: 31-37.
[29]. Zhang, Q., Zhang, Y., Peng, S., Yirdaw, E., and Wu, N. (2009). Spatial structure of Alpine trees
in mountain Baima Xueshan on the southeast Tibetan plateau. Silva Fennica, 43 (2): 197-208.
[30]. Sharifi, M., Najafi, F., Yousef Shahi, H., and Hemmati, Z. (2000). Sacred groves in western
Iran. Journal of Environmental studies, 25 (2): 49-58