بررسی زادآوری و ترکیب پوشش گیاهی در حاشیه جاده‌های جنگلی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه گیلان

2 دانشگاه ایلام

چکیده

به‌منظور ارزیابی اثرات جاده‌ی جنگلی بر زادآوری و ترکیب پوشش گیاهی در سری دو حوزه‌ی شفارود، جاده‌ای به طول 400 متر که به لحاظ ارتفاع، جهت دامنه، تغییرات شیب و ترکیب گونه‌ای دارای وضعیت یکنواختی بود، انتخاب شد. نمونه‌برداری بر روی ترانسکت (خط) انجام شد. تعداد 5 ترانسکت در سمت راست و 5 ترانسکت در سمت چپ جاده، عمود بر آن پیاده شدند. در هر ترانسکت فواصل 5، 15, 25 و 35 متر مشخص شدند. در هر فاصله نوع و زادآوری گونه‌های درختی و درختچه‌ای در قطعات نمونه‌ی 100 مترمربعی و نوع و درصد پوشش گونه‌های علفی با استفاده از روش حداقل سطح در قطعات نمونه‌ی 64 مترمربعی ثبت شدند. با استفاده از آنالیز دو طرفه گونه‌های شاخص، پوشش علفی محدوده‌ی مورد مطالعه به صورت دو گروه Primula heterochroma و Lolium temulentum L. - Rumex conglomeratus طبقه‌بندی شدند. طبق نتایج، ترکیب گونه‌ای قطعات نمونه‌ی نزدیک جاده با قطعات نمونه‌ی داخل جنگل متفاوت بوده و در دو دسته‌ی مجزا گروه‌بندی شدند. از بین زادآوریهای ثبت شده، فراوانی توسکای ییلاقی اختلاف معنی‌داری را بین لبه جاده و داخل جنگل، با فراوانی بالاتر در لبه جاده نشان داد. نتایج تحقیق حاضر، در ارزیابی اثرات بوم‌شناسی جاده‌ها در شرایط رویشگاهی مشابه مفید خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation on the Regeneration and Vegetation Composition in the Edge of Forest Roads

چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effects of forest road on regeneration and vegetation composition in district No. 2 Shafaroud, a road was selected with the length of 400 m that the altitude, aspect, slope variations and species composition were similar. Five transects in right and 5 transects in left side of road, were established as perpendicular. In each transect 5, 15, 25 and 35 m distances were determined from the road edge. Type and number of regeneration species of trees and shrubs in 100 m2, and type and cover percentage of herbaceous species with using minimal area method were recorded in 64 m2. Herbaceous species was classified into two groups using Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis: Primula heterochroma and Lolium temulentum L. - Rumex conglomerates. Results indicated that species composition of plots in road edge was difference in comparing with plots of inside the forest and they were classified into two separate groups. Among the regenerations Alnus subcordata had significant difference in term of abundance between different distances from the edge of the road. This species had more abundance in the edge of the road. The results of the present study would be useful for evaluating ecological effects of roads on sites with similar conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Forest road
  • Jaccard’s index
  • Regeneration
  • two way analysis
  • vegetation
]1 .[Darvishsefat, A.A., Ahmadi, A., Makhdom, M., and Abolghasemi, Sh. (2007). Routing using GIS with consideration of environmental principles (Case study: Parchin Road). Journal of the Iranian Natural Research, 60 (1): 203-211.

]2 .[Forman, R.T.T., Sperling, D., Bissonette, J.A., Clevenger, P., Cutshall, C.D., Dale, V.H., Fahrig, L., France, R., Goldman, C.R., Heanue, K., Jones, A.J., Swanson, F.J., Turrentine, T., and Winter, T.C. (2002). Road Ecology: Science and Solutions. Island Press, Washington, DC. 527 p.

]3.[ Lamont, B.B., and Southall, K.J. (1982). Biology of mistletoe Amyema preissii on road verges and undisturbed vegetation. Knowledge for Productive and Sustainable Australian Landscapes, 13: 87-88.

]4 . [Lamont, B.B., Rees, R., Witkowski, E., and Whitten, V.A. (1994). Comparative size, fecundity and ecophysiology of roadside plants of Banksia hookeriana. Journal of Applied Ecology, 31:137-144.

]5.[ Buckley, D.S., Crow, T.R., Nauertz, E.A., and Schulz, K.E. (2003). Influences of skid trails and haul roads on under story plant richness and composition in managed forest lands capes in upper Michigan, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 175: 509-520.

]6[. Avon, C., Bergès, L., Dumas, Y., and Dupouey, J.L. (2010). Does the effect of forest roads extend a few meters or more into the adjacent forest? A study on understudy plant diversity in manage oak stands. Forest Ecology and Management, 259 (8). 1546-1555.

]7[. Watkins, R., Anchen, J., and Brosofske, K. (2003). Effect of forest roads on understory plants in a managed hardwood landscape. Journal of Conservation Biology, 2: 411-419.

]8[. Parendes, L.A., and Jones, J.A. (2000). Light availability, dispersal and exotic plant invasion along roads and streams in the H.J.AndrewExperimentalForest. Oregon. Journal of Conservation Biology, 14: 64–75.

]9 .[Dias, A.C., and Nortcliff, S. (1985). Effects of two land clearing methods on the physical properties of an ox sol in the Brazilian amazon. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 62: 207-212.

]10 .[Najafi, A., Hossieni, S.M., Ezzati, S., Torabi, M., and Fakhari, M.A. (2011). Comparison of Regeneration and Biodiversity of Trees on Cut and Fill Edges of Forest Road (Case Study: Chamestan and LavigeForests, Noor). Journal of Wood and Forest Science and Technology,17(4): 139-152.

]11 .[Bowering, M., Lemay, V., and Marshall, P. (2006). Effects of forest roads on the growth of adjacent lodgepole pine trees. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36(4): 919-929.

]12 .[Molino, J.F., and Sabatier, D. (2001). Tree diversity in tropical rain forests: a validation of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. Science, 294: 1702-1704.

]13[. Ghahraman, A. (1997). Flora of Iran, Volume 16, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands. 250p.

]14[. Cain, S.A. (1938). The species-area curve. American Midland Naturalist, 19: 573-580.

]15 .[Braun-Blanquet, J. (1964). Pflanzensoziologie, Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde. 3rd ed, Springer, Wien-New York. 865 p.

]16.[ Jaccard, P. (1908). Nouvelles recherches sur la distribution florale. Bulletin Society Siences Naturale. 44. pp.223-270.

]17 .[Gullison, R.E., Panfil, S.N., Strouse, J.J., and Hubell, S.P. (1996). Ecology and management of mahogany (Swietenia Macrophylla King) in the Chimanes Forest Beni Bolivia. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 122: 9-34.

]18.[ Shabani, S., Akbarinia, M., Jalali, Gh, and Aliarab, A. (2011). Impact of canopy gaps size on woody species biodiversity in mountainous forest of northern Iran (case study: beech stand of Lalis. Chalous. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 19(1): 73-82.

]19.[ Belinchon, R., Martinez, I., Escudero, A., Aragon, G., and Valladares, F. (2007). Edge effects on epiphytic communities in a Mediterranean Quercus pyrenaica forest. Vegetation Science Journal, 18: 81-90.

]20[. Negishi, J.N., Noguchi, S., Sidle, R.C., and Abdul Rahim, N. (2004). Some observations on logging road recovery: implications to road rehabilitations. Proceedings of the international workshop on the landscape level rehabilitation of degraded tropical forests. Forestry and Forest Product Research Institute, Tsukuba, 12: 29-36.

]21 .[Fedkiw, J. (1998). Managing multiple uses on national forests, 1905-1995: A 90-year learning experience and it isn’t finished yet. Used Forest Service Publication, 628, 284p.

]22 .[Williams-Linera, G. (1990). Vegetation structure and environmental conditions of forest edges in panama. Journal of Ecology, 78: 356-373.

]23[. Wronski, E.B. (1984). Impact of tractor thinning operations on soil and tree roots in a Karri forest, Western Australia. Journal of AustralianForest Research, 14: 319-332.

]24.[ Hosseini, S. A., and Jalilvand, H. (2007). Marginal effect of forest road on Alder trees. Pak. Journal of Biological Science, 10: 1766-1771.

]25 .[Delgado, J.D., Arroyo, N.L., Are'valo, J.R., and Fernández-Placios, J.M. (2007). Edge effects of roads on temperature, light, canopy cover and canopy height in laurel and pine forests (Tenerife, CanaryIsland). Landscape and Urban Planning, 81: 328-340.

]26 .[Nielsen, J.N., Severich, W., Fredericksen, T., and Nabe-Nielsen, L.I. (2007). Timber tree regeneration along abandoned logging roads in a tropical Bolivian forest. New Forests, 34: 31-40.

]27[. Chen, J. Franklin, J.F., and Spies, T.A. 1992. Vegetation responses to edge environments in old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Ecological Applications, 2(4): 387-396.

]28 .[Arévalo, J.R., Delgado, J.D., and Fernández-Palacios, J.M. (2008). Changes in plant species composition and litter production in response to roads and trails in the laurel forest of Tenerife (Canary Islands). Plant Biosystems - An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology, 142(3): 614 – 622.