اثر جاده‌ جنگلی بر تنوع گونه‌ای علفی و استقرار زادآوری درختی (مطالعه موردی: بخش های پاتم و نمخانه)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشکده منابع طبیعی

3 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

ساخت جاده‌های جنگلی به عنوان یکی از عوامل موثر در ایجاد تغییرات اکولوژیکی می‌‌تواند بر تنوع و ترکیب گونه‌‌ها در حاشیه جاده تاثیر گذار باشد. این پژوهش ‌به منظور بررسی تنوع گونه‌های علفی و استقرار زادآوری درختی در فواصل مختلف از کناره جاده و با هدف بررسی تاثیر جاده، در بخش پاتم و نمخانه جنگل خیرود انجام شد. به همین منظور در شش فاصله 0، 5، 10، 25، 50 و 100‌متر (از محور وسط جاده) و در سمت ترانشه خاکبرداری و خاکریزی ماکروپلات‌های 100)5×20 متر) مترمربع برای نمونه‌برداری گونه‌های علفی و درون آنها، میکروپلات‌‌های m2×2 برای نمونه‌برداری زادآوری درختی استفاده شد (78 قطعه نمونه گونه‌علفی و‌156 قطعه نمونه زادآوری درختی). در داخل هرکدام از قطعات نمونه اطلاعات مربوط به رویشگاه ، نوع گونه‌های گیاهی و نهال‌ها و فراوانی آنها بر اساس مقیاس لوندو برداشت شد. برای بررسی تنوع از شاخص‌های سیمپسون و شانون- وینر، شاخص غنا ‌تعداد گونه(s) و شاخص یکنواختی پیلو استفاده و آنالیز داده‌ها در قالب طرح بلوک کاملا تصادفی انجام شد . آنالیز واریانس نشان داد که فاصله از جاده به طور معنی داری بر ترکیب و تنوع گونه-های علفی و زادآوری درختی تاثیر دارد. همچنین ‌نتایج حاصل از آنالیز چندمتغیره(CCA) نشان داد که از بین عوامل محیطی موثر، کربن، اسیدیته و نیتروژن بیشترین اثر را در پراکنش گونه‌‌ها دارد. این نتیجه می‌تواند برنامه‌ریزان را در طراحی‌ دقیق و مناسب جاده جنگلی در جهت به حداقل رساندن خسارات وارده به رویشگاه و درنتیجه استقرار زادآوری و نیز انتخاب گونه‌های مناسب زیست مهندسی کمک نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Forest Road on Herbaceous Diversity and Tree Regeneration

نویسنده [English]

  • Ehsan Abdi 2
چکیده [English]

Road construction is one of the effective factors for ecological changes which affects diversity and species composition in forest roads edges. This research was performed in Kheirud forest to evaluate herbaceous diversity and tree regeneration establishment in different distances from road edge. For this purpose, we sampled herbaceous and tree species regeneration in 0,5,10,25, 50 and 100 m distances from road in down and up-hill sides. Biodiversity indices (Shannon and Simpson), richness index (species number )s)) and evenness index (Pielou) were calculated to determine the degree and magnitude of road effects on herbaceous and regeneration diversity. The results showed that, the species diversity, richness and evenness indices were not significantly related to down and up slope while these attributes were significant to distance from the road. Distance from road edge was a significant factor which affect composition and distribution of herbaceous plants and tree regenerations. In road edges, the first plots (0, 5, 10 m distance) had significantly greater number of light demanding species like Rubus hirtus, Carex remota ,‌Sumbucus ebulus ‌, Acer velutinum and Alnus glutinosa than interior plots. Based on results, among the environmental factors, light condition was major determinant of species distribution and abundance of road to forest interior gradient. These results are expected to provide critical information for decision makers to design carefully and appropriate forest roads to minimum damages of habitats to establishment of regeneration and also help to select the proper species bioengineering

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Evenness
  • Diversity
  • Forest roads
  • Herbaceous plants
  • Richness
  • Tree regenerations
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