برهم‌‌کنش آثار تنش خشکی و پوسیدگی ریشۀ فوزاریومی در برخی ویژگی‌های مورفوفیزیولوژیک نهال‌های کُنار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموختۀ کارشناسی ارشد بخش مدیریت مناطق بیابانی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

2 دانشیار بخش گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

3 استادیار بخش مدیریت مناطق بیابانی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

4 دانشیار بخش مهندسی آب، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

کُنار (Ziziphus spina-christi) درختی جنگلی است که در نواحی خشک و نیمه‌خشک آسیا و افریقا رشد می‌کند و بومیان به‌طور گسترده از میوه‌ها، برگ‌ها، پوست، و چوب آن استفاده می‌کنند. از سال 1387 مرگ تعداد زیادی از نهال‌های کُنار با علایم پوسیدگی در ریشه در نهالستان‌های کازرون و لامرد در استان فارس مشاهده شد. عامل بیماری ضمن حمله به ریشه‌ها سبب تغییر رنگ و نکروز پوست داخلی و چوب در محل طوقه می‌شود. با کشت بافت‌های تغییر‌رنگ‌یافته (ریشه و طوقه) روی محیط کشت عصارة سیب‌زمینی‌ـ‌آگار جدایه‌های قارچ Fusarium oxysporumجدا شد و بیماری‌زاییِ گونة فوق با استفاده از اصول کخ به اثبات رسید. از آنجا که کُنار در مناطق خشک نهال‌کاری می‌شود و بیماریِ مرگ نهال ناشی از پوسیدگی ریشه نیز در این مناطق شایع است، برهم‌کنش تنش خشکی و عامل بیماری‌زا در آلودگی ریشه‌های این گیاهان مطالعه و بررسی شد. به‌‌‌منظور بررسی اثر متقابل سطوح مختلف تنش خشکی و عامل بیماری‌‌زا، مطالعه‌ای به‌صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار شامل تیمار‌های دور‌آبیاری (دو، سه، پنج، و هشت ‌روزه) و قارچ F. oxysporum تحت شرایط گلخانه انجام گرفت و برخی ویژگی‌های مورفوفیزیولوژیک نهال‌ها، مانند ارتفاع، تعداد برگ، و طول و پهنای برگ، بررسی شد. نتایج حاصل از این آزمایش نشان می‌دهد که عکس‌العمل رشدی کُنار در مقایسه با تنش‌های خشکی اعمال‌شده به سطوح خشکی بستگی دارد. همچنین، کاهش ارتفاع و تعداد برگ در هر گیاه در برهم‌کنش F. oxysporum و تنش خشکی بیش از 50 درصد مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Co-effects of Fusarium Root Rot and Water Stress on Some of the Morphophysiological Features of Christ Thorn's Seedlings

نویسندگان [English]

  • Najmeh Nejat 1
  • Reza Mostowfizadeh Ghalamfarsa 2
  • Hosein Sadeghi 3
  • Shahrokh Zand-Parsa 4
  • Seyed Rashid Fallah Shamsi 3
1 M Sc. Graduate of Department of DesertRegion Management, Collage of Agriculture, ShirazUniversity, Shiraz, I.R. Iran
2 Associate Professor of Department of Plant Protection, Collage of Agriculture, ShirazUniversity, Shiraz, I.R. Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Department of Desert Region Management, Collage of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, I.R. Iran
4 Associate Professor of Department of Irrigation, Collage of Agriculture, ShirazUniversity, Shiraz, I.R. Iran
چکیده [English]

Christ thorn (Ziziphus spina-christi)is a forest tree species that grows wild in the arid and semiarid
areas of Asia and Africa where rural populations intensively use its fruits, leaves, bark,
and wood. The death of a large number of seedlings with root rot symptoms has been observed
since 2008 in Kazerunand Lamer nurseries in Fars Provience of Iran. Necrosis of internal skin
and crown were also detected in the infected plants. Some isolates of Fusarium oxysporum
were recovered through plating the infected tissues on the PDA medium which were found
to be pathogenic on the Christ thorn seedlings through Kock’s postulate. Since Christ thornis
cultivated in the arid areas and damping-off of the seedlings is a common disease in these areas,
the present study was conducted to study the co-effects of water stress and the pathogen on the
plant seedlings. The effects of F. oxysporum infection and the levels of irrigation frequencies
(every 2, 3, 5 and 8 days) was studied through using a factorial experiment that was arranged
in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Some morpho-physiological
features of the seedlings such as height, leaf number, leaf height, and width were measured.
The results of this experiment indicated that the growth response of Christ thorn to drought
stress depends on the levels of irrigation applied. Compared to the unstressed control, the
interaction of F. oxysporum and water stress reduced the seedling height and leaf numbers up
to more than 50%.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Christ thorn
  • damping off
  • Drought stress
  • Fusarium oxysporum
  • root rot
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